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Ontario Tech acknowledges the lands and people of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation.

We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. These lands remain home to many Indigenous nations and peoples.

We acknowledge this land out of respect for the Indigenous nations who have cared for Turtle Island, also called North America, from before the arrival of settler peoples until this day. Most importantly, we acknowledge that the history of these lands has been tainted by poor treatment and a lack of friendship with the First Nations who call them home.

This history is something we are all affected by because we are all treaty people in Canada. We all have a shared history to reflect on, and each of us is affected by this history in different ways. Our past defines our present, but if we move forward as friends and allies, then it does not have to define our future.

Learn more about Indigenous Education and Cultural Services

Andrea Kirkwood

Andrea Kirkwood


Faculty of Science

Leading aquatic microbial biologist working to understand and preserve ecological systems, aquatic scientist with research interests in: aquatic diversity and function across environmental gradients, aquatic invasive species, algal-bacterial interactions, algal biotechnology related to wastewater treatment and value-added products. I have expertise in algal blooms, invasive species, and the impacts of pollution and climate change on aquatic resources such as lakes, rivers, and wetlands.

  • PhD - Environmental Microbiology University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario 2003
  • Master of Science - Aquatic Ecology McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario 1996
  • Bachelor in Environmental Science - Environment and Resource Studies and Biology - Joint Honours (Co-op) University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario 1994
INVITED SPEAKER (seminar unless stated otherwise)
  • Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research Seminar Series, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON (2019)
  • Department of Biology Seminar Series, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (2019)
  • Kawartha Lakes Stewardship Association Annual General Meeting, Buckhorn, ON (plenary speaker) (2019)
  • North Kawartha Lakes Association Spring Meeting, Apsley, ON (plenary speaker) (2019)
  • Ontario Tech Women in Science Speakers Series, Oshawa, ON (2019)
  • Aquatic Research Group Seminar Series, York University, Toronto, ON (2019)
  • Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) Symposium on biosecurity and transnational environmental crime, Toronto, ON (2019)
  • Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Laurentian Chapter), Queens University, Kingston, ON (Plenary speaker) (2018)
  • Queen’s University Biological Station Public Seminar Series, Elgin, ON (2018)
  • Ontario Tech Graduate Student Conference, Oshawa, ON (2018)
  • Department of Biology and Chemistry Seminar Series, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (2017)
  • Scugog Lake Stewards Annual General Meeting, Port Perry, ON (2016)
  • Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON (2016)
  • University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (2016)
  • University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (2015)
  • Wilfred Laurier University, Waterloo, ON (2015)
  • Trent University, Peterborough, ON (2013)
  • Queens University Biological Station Field Course, Elgin, ON (2013)
  • Lakehead University Summer of Sustainability Speaker Series, Orillia, ON (2013)
  • Joint City of Oshawa and Rizhao, China Delegation presentation at Ontario Tech, Oshawa, ON (2012)
  • Ontario Tech Board of Governors research presentation, Oshawa, ON (2011)
  • Ontario Tech Graduate Student Conference, Oshawa, ON (2011)
  • Environmental Science Speaker’s Series, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (2010)
  • Ontario Society of Environmental Educators Conference, Oshawa, ON (2009)
  • Canadian Water Network: Communication and Networking Workshop, Calgary, AB (2007)
  • Spring Naturalists Workshop, Biogeosciences Institute, Kananaskis Field Station, AB (2007)
  • Biogeosciences Institute, Kananaskis, AB (2006-07)
  • Canadian Water Network, Calgary, AB (2007)
  • Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (2005)
  • Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (2004, 2007)
  • Dept. of Botany, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (2004)
  • Dept. of Biological Sciences, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS (2003)
  • Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (1999)
  • Forest Research Institute, Rotorua, New Zealand (1999)
*denotes student trainees
  • Gore, M.L., Braszak, P., Brown, J., Cassey, P., Duffy, R., Fisher, J., Graham, J., Justo-Hanani, R., Kirkwood, A.E., Lunstrum, E., Machalaba, C., Massé, F. Manguiat, M. Omrow, D., Stoett, P., Wyatt, T. and White, R. (2019) Transnational environmental crime threatens sustainable development. Nature Sustainability, Aug. 12 pp.1-3.
  • *Ussery, E., Bridges, K. N., Pandelides, Z., Kirkwood, A. E., Guchardi, J., & Holdway, D. (2019). Developmental and full‐life cycle exposures to guanylurea, and guanylurea‐metformin mixtures results in adverse effects on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 38(5), 1023-1028.
  • Tiegs, S. plus 149 co-authors in alphabetical order, including Kirkwood, A.E. 2018. Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zone. Science Advances 5(1), eaav0486.
  • *Ussery, E., Bridges, K. *Pandelides, Z., Kirkwood, A.E., Bonetta, D. Venables, B., Guchardi, J., and Holdway, D. 2018. Effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Aquatic Toxicology 205, 58-65.
  • *Strangway, C., Bowman, M.F. and Kirkwood, A.E. 2017. Assessing landscape and contaminant point-sources as spatial determinants of water quality in the Vermillion River System, Ontario, Canada. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24(28):22587-22601.
  • *Ibsen, M., Fernando, D., Kumar, A. and Kirkwood, A.E. 2017. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial communities associated with Cladophora glomerata mats in Lake Ontario. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 63(5): 439-449.
  • *Massimi, R., Kirkwood, A.E. 2016. Screening microalgae isolated from urban storm- and wastewater systems as feedstock for biofuel. PeerJ 4:e2396; DOI 10.7717/peerj.2396
  • *Stemmler K., Massimi R., Kirkwood A.E. 2016. Growth and fatty acid characterization of microalgae isolated from municipal waste-treatment systems and the potential role of algal-associated bacteria in feedstock production. PeerJ 4:e1780
  • *Breton, H.A., Kirkwood, A.E., Carter, D.O. and Forbes, S.L. 2016. Changes in soil microbial activity following cadaver decomposition during spring and summer months in southern Ontario. In Kars, Henk, van den Eijkel, Lida (Eds.). Soil in Criminal and Environmental Forensics, Springer, pp.243-262.
  • *Breton, H, Kirkwood, A., Carter, D.O., Forbes, S.L. 2015. The impact of carrion decomposition on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of soil microbial communities in southern Canada. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal.
  • *Vincent, J. and Kirkwood, A.E. 2014. Variability of water quality, metals, and phytoplankton community structure in urban stormwater ponds along a vegetation gradient. Urban Ecosystems 17:839-853.
  • *Gilbert, N., Fulthorpe, R. and Kirkwood, A.E. 2012. Microbial diversity, tolerance and biodegradation potential of urban wetlands with different input regimes. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 58:887-897.
  • Buchheim, M.A., Kirkwood, A.E., Buchheim, J.A., Verghese, B. and Henley, W.J. 2010. Hypersaline soil supports a diverse community of Dunaliella (CHLOROPHYCEAE). Journal of Phycology 46:1038–1047
  • Kirkwood, A.E., Jackson, L.J. and McCauley, E. 2009. Are dams hotspots for Didymosphenia geminata blooms? Freshwater Biology 54:1856–1863.
  • Kirkwood, A. E., Jackson, L.J., McCauley, E. 2008. Didymosphenia geminata distribution and bloom formation along the south-eastern slopes of the Canadian Rockies. In Bothwell, M. L. & Spaulding, S.A. (eds) Proceedings of the 2007 International Workshop on Didymosphenia geminata. Canadian Technical Report on Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2795: 22-24.
  • Kirkwood, A.E., Buchheim, J.A., Henley, W.J. and Buchheim, M.A. 2008. Cyanobacterial diversity and halotolerance in a variable, hypersaline environment. Microbial Ecology 55:453-465.
  • Kirkwood, A.E., Shea, T., Jackson, L.J. and McCauley, E. 2007. Didymosphenia geminata in two Alberta headwater rivers: An emerging invasive species that challenges conventional views on algal bloom development. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64:1703-1709.
  • Henley, W.J., Kvíderová, J., Kirkwood, A.E., Milner, J. and Potter, A.T. 2007. Life in a hypervariable environment: algae of the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma, U.S.A. In J. Seckbach (Ed.) Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments. Series: Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology, Vol. 11. Springer, NY, p814
  • Kirkwood, A.E. and Henley, W.J. 2006. Algal community dynamics and halotolerance in a terrestrial, hypersaline environment. Journal of Phycology 42(3):537-547.
  • Kirkwood, A.E., Nalewajko, C. and Fulthorpe, R.R. 2006. The effects of cyanobacterial exudates on bacterial growth and biodegradation of organic contaminants. Microbial Ecology 51:4-12.
  • Major, K.M., Kirkwood, A.E., Major, C.S., McCreadie, J.W. and Henley, W.J. 2005. In situ studies of algal biomass in relation to physicochemical characteristics of the Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma, USA. Saline Systems 1:1-11.
  • Kirkwood, A.E., Nalewajko, C. and Fulthorpe, R.R. 2005. The impacts of cyanobacteria on pulp and paper wastewater toxicity and biodegradation of wastewater contaminants. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 51:531-540.
  • Kirkwood, A.E., Nalewajko, C. and Fulthorpe, R.R. 2003. Physiological characteristics of cyanobacteria from pulp and paper waste-treatment systems. Journal of Applied Phycology 15 (4):325-335.
  • Kirkwood, A.E., Nalewajko, C. and Fulthorpe, R.R. 2001. The occurrence of cyanobacteria in pulp and paper waste treatment systems. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 47(8):761-766.
  • Kirkwood, A.E., Chow-Fraser, P. and Mierle, G. 1999. Seasonal mercury levels in phytoplankton and their relationship with algal biomass in two dystrophic lakes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(3):523-532.

Board of Directors

Friends of Second Marsh January 1, 2012

Since 2012, Dr. Kirkwood has been a member of the Board of Directors of Friends of Second Marsh, a not-for-profit charitable organization dedicated to encouraging the protection and appreciation of Second Marsh, a coastal wetland located in Durham Region, other Great Lakes wetlands, our natural heritage system, and to promoting a healthy environment through education, communication, developing partnerships and fostering connections with all sectors of the community.

Scientific Advisory Board

Canadian Phycological Culture Centre April 30, 2014

The Canadian Phycological Culture Centre (CPCC) provides research quality cultures, culture medium, and other related services to educational institutions, government and commercial laboratories worldwide. Housed at the University of Waterloo in the Department of Biology, the CPCC is internationally recognized as a major service collection of living freshwater algal, cyanobacterial and Lemna spp. (duckweed) cultures.

Post-doctoral Fellow

University of Calgary January 1, 2005

Dr. Kirkwood completed her post-doc work and continued as a research associate supported by grants from the Alberta Conservation Association and Alberta Sustainable Resource Development.

Post-doctoral Fellow

Oklahoma State University September 1, 2002

American Society of Limnology and Oceanography

Canadian Society for Ecology and Evolution

Canadian Society of Microbiologists

Ecological Society of America

Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network

North American Lake Management Society

Phycological Society of America

Society of Freshwater Sciences

Society of Canadian Limnologists

Friends of Second Marsh

Canadian Phycological Culture Collection

University of Toronto

University of Toronto at Scarborough(PhD program in Environmental Science)

Trent University (Graduate program in Life and Environmental Sciences)

University of Waterloo (Graduate program in Biology)

Current courses
  • BIOL 3620U Conservation Biology
  • BIOL 4660U Aquatic Ecology
  • BIOL 4010U Introduction to Environmental Research Methods
Past courses
  • BIOL 3660 Ecology
  • BIOL 1020 Biology II: Diversity of Life and Principles of Ecology